It’s getting to that time of the year when we can look forward to swimming, and time to review what we know about the process of drowning and how to recognize it:
Drowning is not a noisy, dramatic event. Our body’s response to suffocation by water is quite different to the commonly held view that it involves waving arms and shouting for help. That comes before you are drowning. At that point you are in a state known as “aquatic distress” and can still assist in your own rescue by grabbing at floatation devices. If you aren’t saved at this point you quickly pass to drowning. Then, instinct takes over.
In an article in
the US Coastguards ‘On Scene’ magazine Dr Francesco Pia, Phd, describes what he
terms ‘the instinctive drowning response’ as follows:
1. Except in rare circumstances, drowning people are physiologically unable to call out for help. The respiratory system was designed for breathing. Speech is the secondary or overlaid function. Breathing must be fulfilled, before speech occurs.
2. Drowning people’s mouths alternately sink below and reappear above the surface of the water. The mouths of drowning people are not above the surface of the water long enough for them to exhale, inhale, and call out for help. When the drowning people’s mouths are above the surface, they exhale and inhale quickly as their mouths start to sink below the surface of the water.
3. Drowning people cannot wave for help. Nature instinctively forces them to extend their arms laterally and press down on the water’s surface. Pressing down on the surface of the water, permits drowning people to leverage their bodies so they can lift their mouths out of the water to breathe.
4. Throughout the Instinctive Drowning Response, drowning people cannot voluntarily control their arm movements. Physiologically, drowning people who are struggling on the surface of the water cannot stop drowning and perform voluntary movements such as waving for help, moving toward a rescuer, or reaching out for a piece of rescue equipment.
5. From beginning to end of the Instinctive Drowning Response people’s bodies remain upright in the water, with no evidence of a supporting kick.
Drowning people can only struggle on the surface of the water for from 20 to 60 seconds before submersion occurs.
So, if someone
dives, jumps or falls overboard and appears to be calm, don’t assume they are
not in trouble. Sometimes the most common indication that someone is drowning
is that they don’t look like they’re drowning. Talk to them. Ask them: Are you
OK? If they reply immediately, they’re probably fine. If they just look blank
there’s a chance that they are drowning and you must act quickly to assist
Keep a watch on
people playing in the water, look for these other signs of drowning:
Head tilted back
with mouth open.
Head low in the
water, mouth at water level
Eyes closed, or
glassy and empty, unfocussed.
Vertical in the
water, not using legs
Attempting to swim
but not making headway
Attempting to roll
over on the back
So, if the kids
are screaming and splashing, be thankful, they’re not drowning. If they go
unnaturally quiet, that’s the time to worry. One day this knowledge may save